PANCHAYATI RAJ                                

        Panchayats have been the backbone of the Indian villages since the beginning of the recorded history in one form or other. The tribal communities of Arunachal Pradesh has developed their own traditional system of self-governance prior to introduction of institutions are called as KEBANG among the Adis, Nogongthun among the Noctes, Jung-Blue among the Sherdukpens, Mele among the Akas, Builang among the Apatanis, Wancho-Wangas among the Wanchos and so on, etc.
        The constitution of India promulgated in 1950 with the provision of promotion of local self-government in Directive Principle. Later, the Government of India appointed the Balwanti Mehta Committee to review the performance of CD Programme. The Committee recommended in 1957 in favour of setting up of three tier Panchayati Raj system for effective implementation of CD programme. This paved the way for introduction of Panchayati Raj in the States.
        In Arunachal Pradesh, the Panchayati Raj system was introduced w.e.f 2nd October, 1968 as per recommendations of the Ering Committee. The three tier Panchayati Raj bodies were constituted as Gram Panchayat (20112), Anchal Samitis (78) and Zilla Parishad (13). During last 3-dcades, the elections to constitute Panchayati Raj Bodies were held 7 times till 1992. The last Panchayat election was held in the state in September, 1992 and its full term was allowed upto 14th September, 1997 as per previous NEFA Panchayati Raj Regulation Act, 1967. The Governor of Arunachal Pradesh dissolved the three-tier Panchayati Raj Bodies of Arunachal Pradesh w.e.f 14th September, 1997 as the elections for constitution of new Panchayati Raj bodies could not be conducted in the absence of new Panchayati Raj Act as per 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992.
        With the introduction of Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992 by the Government of India, the Government of Arunachal Pradesh initially promulgated an ordinance giving consent to the introduction of Panchayati Raj Act, 1992 and later replaced the ordinance by a bill passed by the Assembly in 1994. The Bill passed by the Assembly excluded the provision of reservation of seats for schedule castes in all the three bodies of Panchayat. The Bill reserved for assent of the President of India and the same was returned back by the Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs in September, 1996 suggesting for inclusion of reservation of seats for schedule castes.      Though the constitution Act makes it obligatory on the part of every state to reserve seats for schedule castes, but in Arunachal Pradesh, situation is different than other states as the state is predominantly inhabited by tribal people only. There are no persons who can claim to be indigenous schedule castes of the states. This issue is still being pursued by the State Government with the Government of India to give assent to the Arunachal Pradesh Panchayati Raj Bills, 1997 as passed by the Assembly. But the issue is still to be resolved.

TRAINING AND RESEARCH

        The training officials and non-officials involved in the rural development activities is one of the objectives and tested tools for improvement of performance and Upgradation of knowledge and skill. Further, planning, implementation and monitoring of various poverty alleviation programmes are very challenging task which calls for an effective government machinery as well as non-government functionaries.
        The Panchayati Raj Institutions are being rejuvenated as per 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992 under which three-tier Panchayati Raj bodies will be empowered to discharge their function relating to development activities and financial managements in village level. Thus elected representatives, at all levels, are to be armed with required skills and knowledges to perform their constitutional obligations.
        Keeping in view the objectives, the Central Government has sponsored three-tier training institutions like, National Institute of Rural Development (NIRD) at national level, State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD) at State level and Extension Training Centre (ETC) at District Level.
        In Arunachal Pradesh, the State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD) was set-up during 1993-94 as an autonomous institution for providing training to the Government functionaries and non-officials. The recurring expenditure for running of SIRD is borne by the Centre and State on 50:50 basis while the non-recurring cost and salaries of core faculties (upto-5) are met by the centre as 100% grant. Presently, no ETC has been set-up but the GTC, Pasighat has been strengthened to organize training for village / block level functionaries.
        The expenditure incurred and training courses organized since beginning is indicated at Table.

Table
( In Rs.)

Year   Expenditure Incurred No. of training conducted No. of persons trained
Officials  Non-officials  Total
1994-95 3.38 5 70 - 70
1995-96 7.64 15 227 346 573
1996-97 11.43 11 158 73 231
1997-98 21.33 12 217 92 309
1998-99 24.37 9 111 55 166
1999-2000 18.58 12 187 95 282
TOTAL 86.73 64 970 661 1631