At a Glance Government People and Culture Tourism in Arunachal Pradesh Biodiversity Directory

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Medicinal Plants

Toko(Palm Tree)

Cymtridum Orchid

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There are over 500 species of medicinal plants reported so for from Arunachal Pradesh. They can not only cure our ailments but can also be potential source of economy to the state. It will open up avenues in cultivation, processing , packaging, marketing and industrial application. The medicinal plants are found through out the state. Some of them are much sought after by pharmaceutical companies. Quite obviously it is the rural people, particularly the unemployed woman and children, who would be benefited by these ventures.
The demand for medicinal plants are ever increasing as people are more and more fascinated towards herbals. Extraction from wild has its own problems and risks . We need to cultivate for larger production and authenticity. Cultivation will help in conservation of some of our medicinal herbs that are being pushed to the danger of extinction. Cultivation of medicinal plants are not only economical but are ecologically safer too.
Medicinal plant of Arunachal Pradesh
Where to cultivate:
We have different agroclimatic conditions available in the state depending up on the altitude. Practically any type of land available can be used to cultivate one or the other medicinal plant. Thus they are useful for jhum fallows, farm yards, forest lands, river banks, marshy areas, roadsides, farm yards, home gardens and the like. There could he some species suiting to these conditions . These plants in various combinations can be used to make multitier plantation.
Your Choice :
After identifying the land next step is the choice of species, depending on the altitude of the place it may either be species of low altitude or high altitude. In general it should be economically profitable. For optimum productivity it may be a farm of single species or preferably combinations of trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers. Fortunately we have a number of species to choose. Some of the most economical plants are Acorus, Andrographis , Aquilaria, Dioscorea, Oroxylum, Rauvolfia, Tinospora, Withania, etc in low altitudes. While for high altitudes it is Aconitum, Coptis, Gymnadaenia, Illicium, Panax, Picrorrhiza, Rubia, Taxus, etc.
These are described below.
ball.gif (7394 bytes) Acorus calamus Boch, Vacha, Vayambu -
This perennial herb of marshy habitats is easy to cultivate through rhizome cuttings in tropical and sub-tropical zones. The tubers are traded as it is reputed as brain tonic, coolant and drug for colic. It has high demand in the market. Commercial production from 3rd year.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Andrographis Paniculate Kalmegh, Chiraita teeta -
This bitter annual herb has hepato protective propenties and is an anthelmentic and liver tonic. It is a blood purifier too . The whole plant is used . it is one of the high demand spcies propagated through seeds and ideal for open or partial shade localities in low altitudes. Crop ready in 4-6 months.
m-andrographis.jpg (2291 bytes)
ball.gif (7394 bytes) Aquilaria agallocha Agar , Sasi, Indian eagle wood  -
This tropical deciduous tree is very valuable for its transformed wood which on distillation yield Agar oil which has high export value. Cultivation is through seed raised seedlings. Suitable for both open and partial shade. Artificial induction of agar in live trees is possible. Takes 8-20 years for agar development.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Dioscorea floribunda Kham alu  -
This is a torpical climber with underground tubers and bulbils. The tubers yields diosgeninan alkalloid used in pharmaceuticals. Propagation is through pieces of tubers and bulbils. Farming of this species is profitable . Inter cropping is also possible. Production from first year. 
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Oroxylum indicum Bhatghilla, Jigat  -
This deciduous tree is naturally seen in the secondary forests in the tropics. It is in high demand now a days for its bark used for tanning and as medicine for fever and many other ailments and as tonic. Propagation is through seeds. Bark ready, by 10 years, can be harvested sustainably through scientific methods.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Piper longum Pipli,  Piper brachystachyum, Pmullesua, P. peepuloides-Round Pipli -
Climbers or Undershrubs . An important medicinal plants of Ayurveda . Fruits are collected and traded, for which excellent scope of marketing exist. Ieal for under planting and for partially shaded areas. Multiplication through suckers, stem cuttings and seeds . Harvest expected from 2nd to 4th year.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Rauvolfia serpentina Sarpagandha -
This perennial undershrub can be cultivated in the low altitudes in open as well as shady areas . The roots are reputed fro the treatment of blood pressure. Roots ready to harvest form second years onwards. Propagation through seeds and stem cuttings.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Tinaspora cordifolia Amrit lata, Guduchi -
This is a tropical climber which is used as a tonic and vitaliser . The stem is used for drug manufacture and traded. Ideal for multitier plantation. It has high demand. Propagated through stem cuttings.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Whithania somnifera Aswagandha -
A herbaceous perennial plant, reputed as Indian Ginseng and used for vitality and vigour . Can be cultivated in open and shady areas which are well drained and dry . The roots have great marketing potential. Propagation through seeds.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Aconitum ferox, Aconitum hetero-phyllum Atish, Aconite -
Perennial herbs of alpine and sub alpine habitats. Usually in open places. Roots used for medicine. Very good market prospects for the roots and tubers, Multiplication through seeds and tubers.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Coptis teeta Mishmi teeta -
This is a temperate herb found only in Arunachal Pradesh . It can be cultivated as under planting. Propagation is through seeds. The roots are sold for treatment of variety of diseases.
mcoptis.jpg (3347 bytes)
ball.gif (7394 bytes) Gymnadaenia archidis Panch hath , Salam pancha - 
This annual herbaceous orchid produce high value medicinal tubers which are general tonic. Ideal is open places in alpine localities Propagation through tubers.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes) Illicium griffuhii Lissi-
This is a high altitude tree valued for its fruits. The fruits are used as spice and medicine. Multiplication is through seeds and branch cuttings. Ideal for mixed plantations. Has good market potential ( Front cover photo) .
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ball.gif (7394 bytes)  Panax sikkimensis, Panax spp. Ginseng -
Perennial herbs with tubers, Grows in temperate and sub temperate zones. Ideal for cultivation as under planting. The tubers are highly priced and has high demand. This is a rejuvenating general tonic. Propagation through seeds and tubers. Harvest by 4-8 years.
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ball.gif (7394 bytes)  Picrorrhiza kurroa Kutki -
This is a stemless perennial herb of alpine habitats. It is in high demand for a variety of herbal medicines. Can be grown in open localities and grasslands. Propagation is through seeds and suckers. Much rate in nature. Rhizome ready by 4th year .
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ball.gif (7394 bytes)  Rubia cordifolia Manjista -
This is a perennial climber with four leaves of each node. It yields orange/red dye. It is a high demand species in the medicinal plant market . Ideal for sub-tropical and temperatezones. Prefers shady localities but possible to grow in open too. Propagation through seeds . Crop ready for harvest by 3rd year .
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ball.gif (7394 bytes)  Taxus baccata Yew -
It is a temperate conifer tree. The leaves yields costly taxol. Ideal for cultivation in high altitudes as mixed planting and propagation is through seeds . Easier to multiply through stem cuttings. Has very high demand in market.
m-taxus.jpg (3553 bytes)
Some more pictures of medicinal plants under plantation in Arunachal Pradesh :
Curcuma Caesia
Rubia Cordifolia
Acorus Calamus
Piper brachystachyum
blink.gif (270 bytes)  How to cultivate :
Medicinal plants can be cultivated through
Direct seed sowing
Nursery raised seedlings
Stem cuttings
Root suckers
Tubers and bulbils using appropriate
While planting we should ensure to
Use authentic planting materials
Keep adequate spacing
Provide shade as per requirement
Avoid over watering
Avoid excessive pesticides
Use minimum fertilizers
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The advantages
Cultivation of medicinal plants ensure
Abundance and availability
Authenticity of raw material
Easy management and harvest
Economic sustainability and annual returns
Better land use and better health of people.
For Further information:
Write to
The Director,
State Forest Research Institute.
Van Vihar , PB No. 159,
Itanagar-791 111. Arunachal Pradesh
Tel. 0360- 203566 , Fax, 0360 - 203523.
E-mail : directorsfri@hotmail.com
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