Fish from times immemorial had been an important dietary food of the people of the state. Fishing is not merely a hobby or sport, but a subsidiary occupation of agricultural farmers. It is a means of living. Fish is also connected with religious taboo. According to the belief of the people, the success or failure of commercial fishing depends on good and bad harvest. On the whole, people had no background knowledge even for traditional fish farming.
|The fisheries programme was first initiated from the year 1958 59 on a very modest scale and with the passage of time and expansion of the programme, pisciculture has taken a firm root in this state and the people are now seeking more and more Govt. assistance for this purpose. At present the people are more eager to take up fish farming as a means of subsidiary income. Caste or creed attributes this to the fact that the rural people are basically agricultural farmers and no FISHREMAN exists in the state.|
So long the people had to depend on the nature for the fish protein but due to destruction / indiscriminate killing the population has gone down leading to even barrenness in most of the water resources. Further, the scientific method has helped the people to culture the fish in confinement and the crops can be taken out as and when required from their door - step (so the proverb Fish in a pond is like the monkey in a bank.). Fisheries are now regarded as one of the developing sector involved in the socio-economic upliftment of the rural population of the state. It also helps in the generation of the employment i.e. providing scope for the RIGHT TO WORK and on the process contributing to the mobilisation of the resources. Besides, pisciculture is an activity in which the women also has the accessibility in this profession and it is also a fact that in many years of the State the women has taken up fish husbandry.
The state of Arunachal Pradesh occupying the North-Eastern proximity of the country is characterized by the hilly terrain and criss-crossed by a number of rivers/streams along with a good number of beels in the lower belt and lakes in the middle and higher belts adding to the scenic beauty of its topography. The state has 7000 ha and 2000 Km of lentic and iotic water resources respectively. Of which, 30-40% is falling in the cold water zone of the state. The state is also the happy home for the rich fish fauna with more than 150 fish species. Out of which 20% represents the cold water forms and the remaining 80% is contributed by the admixture of cold and warm water species.
The role of the Govt. in the Fishery sector is for the formulation and implementation of various schemes befitting to the topography and climatic conditions of the state. In this process, the objectives are (a) To provide supplementary nutritional diet. (b) To provide income to the state. (c) At least part-time / occasional employment to the farmers of the state. Nevertheless, the Fisheries could be one of the potential areas to overcome the burning un-employment problems particularly for the rural youths and thus calls for taking up peoples participation programme i.e. mass awareness programme. This is presently being covered under Extension & Training programme by organising Melas, Exhibition and also various specific training programmes.
1.Rural Aquaculture: For development excavation of new ponds through peoples participation with necessary Govt. subsidy assisted as per the following pattern.
Item Estimated Cost Govt. subsidy
(a)Const. Of fish pond Rs. 3.00 lakhs/ha 25% subsidy
(b)Supply of inputs Rs. 0.30 lakh/ha 25% subsidy
The estimated production under this scheme varies between Rs.
7,500/- per ha. The response of the farmer is very encouraging under this programme and
there is a great pressure for more assistance. This programme is also being carried out
through FFDA (Fish Farmers Development Agency)
under CSS (Centrally
Sponsored Scheme) programme.
This also a subsidy scheme against which technical guidance
towards development of Paddy plots and subsidy against inputs i.e. fish seed and TPT etc.
This programme has also been disseminated to other parts of the State also. To solve the problem of Fish Seed against this Programme, a Regional High Altitude Fish Seed Farm at Tarin near Ziro township established during 1981 85 through NEC assistance.
3.Reclamation of Beels/Lakes : This is a programme for both in the Private and Govt. sector for Capture and Culture fisheries for production of Table fish. Under Private sector scheme fish seeds are provided.
4. Cold Water Fishery : This is a programme for introduction of exotic/endomic trout s in snow-fed streams and other areas including establishment of trout farm/hatchery in Govt. sector.
In view of the scope for cold water fisheries in the high altitude areas, the concept for Trout Farming had come up from the year 1967 68 for replenishment of the local resources which was also mostly devoid of local fish The favourable water temperature ranging from below freezing point to as high as 20 C led to the establishment of 1st Trout Hatchery along the stream of Nuranang at an altitude of about 12000 ft. in Tawang District with the Brown Trout seed imported from Jammu & Kashmir. Subsequently, t he encouraging results of Trout farming could be further disseminated by way of establishment of another Trout Hatchery at Shergaon, West Kameng District located at an elevation of 8000 ft. for culture of both Brown & Rainbow Trout; the latter imported from Himachal Pradesh during 1974-75.
Another big trout Hatchery Farm being established at Samteng in West Kameng District under NEC funding and will be commissioned soon.
The Trout farming of Arunachal Pradesh has also drawn the attention of other neighbouring hill States like Nagaland, Meghalaya, ICAR etc and they had imported Trout seed on many a times from this State.
5.Fishers Extension & Training : This is a programme for the creation of training infrastructure, training of fish farmers and manpower development. For farmers training programme, training expenses/stipend etc. is being borne by the Govt. for short term training courses between 10 to 15 days and some times the trainees / farmers are sent to other states for training under central assistance.
6. To support the Peoples Programme for all round Fisheries development activities of the State, the department also operates many Fish / Fish Seed farms as demonstration farm and to ensure quanlity fish seed to the farmer. Some Beel Fisheries, Trout Hatcheries along with some Pilot Projects like Running Water Fish Culture, Magur Culture etc. are also being taken up under the Govt. sector for which necessary funding is being provided by the State Govt. as well as NEC. Under CSS programme major schemes like 2(two) Fish Farmers Development Agency are also in operation in the State.
Special Features / Achievements
Composite Fish Culture of six species combination has been very successful in foot hill area of the State through beneficiaries participation in many of the district viz. Balijan, Doimukh & Kimin Circle in Papumpare District; Ziro & Raga in Lower Subsnsiri District; Dumporijo & Baririjo in Upper Subansiri District, East & West Siang District, Namsai & Jairampur in Changlang District etc.
Hill district particularly West Kameng and Lower Subsnsiri where fisheries Programme has made tremendous impact and the Women-flok particularly in the Ziro area are integrating Fish Culture with Agriculture & Horticulture and desires special mention. Paddy-cum-fish Culture is one of the most popular programme in the State. Paddy-cum-fish Culture in Apatani Plateau beyong 5000 ft is the first of its kind in the NE Region. And at the instance of Govt. of India which appreciating programme approved for production of a documentary film, which is available wit h the DIPR, Govt. of Arunchal Pradesh.
- Mahaseer The Premier Sport Fish abound in the State. This potential resource led to the holding of an International Angling Festival consecutive for two years and the prospects for Tourism needs no further elaboration.
- Cold Water fishery TROUT FISHERY both Brown and Rainbow Trout variety being cultured for stocking the cold water resources has gained popularity for providing recreation to the Defence personal posted in the forward areas of West Kameng & Tawang district and the State is therefore regarded as the Pioneering State in the field in the N.E.Region.
- Fish Breeding through Echo-hatcheries for the Indian major Carps (Rohu,Mrigal,Catla,Gonius) & Exotic Carps (Silver Carp & Grass Carp) at Emchi Papumare District and Lathao in Lohit District and Trout Breeding(Brown & Rainbow) in West Kameng & Tawang District are yet another milestone of achievement in the field of Fisheries.